Modern First Aid Harp Kit

In the light of the available data and the studies carried out by scientists, ballistic helmets and vests protecting the head and chest areas where there are more injuries have started to be used in the armed forces. However, it is necessary to stop the bleeding of the wounded as soon as possible after the basic first aid procedures necessary to reduce the loss rate in injuries where existing protective mechanisms are ineffective. For this reason, some of the recognised products available worldwide are listed in the table below.

(Bkz: CELOX)

In order to adapt to changing combat environments, there has been a great increase in biomedical research to develop better haemostatic plugs (bleeding stoppers). An ideal haemostat: It should be effective, easy to use, reliable, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, have the highest logistic capability, be durable, have labels that can be read by night vision systems in special operations, do not create heat when used, do not allow re-bleeding and do not cause pain to the wounded. The use of effective haemostatic plugs is of great benefit in many combat wounds (whether life-threatening or not) because more effective control of bleeding is the first step in saving lives, and an appropriate haemostatic plug should be able to combat infection of the wound site.

The raw material of such new biotechnological haemostatic plugs is chitosan obtained from chitin. Chitin is the most abundant natural polymer in the world after cellulose and is found in the shells of arthropods such as crabs, shrimps, lobsters and in the cell walls of some bacteria and fungi. The haemostatic properties of chitosan, which is obtained by deacetylation of the biopolymer chitin poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, are completely independent of the body coagulation mechanism, biologically accepted by the body, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, polyelectrolytic structure and controlled release of drugs into the body. At the same time, chitosan is a biopolymer that helps healing in terms of wound care. In current scientific research, it has formed a clot that does not re-bleed for at least 2 hours in 4.4 mm aortic bleeding models.

  1. Depending on the manufacturing technique used for the product’s mechanisms, such as nano-technology production:
  2. Osmotic flow filtration,
  3. Cationic binding capability, meaning its positively charged molecular structure attaches to negatively charged electric fields of filtered red blood cells like a magnetic catalyst,
  4. Activating platelets and forming fibrin clots (beta chitosan) rapidly,
  5. Aiding in the rapid cessation of bleeding in arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins,
  6. Effective clotting in the absence of clotting factors,
  7. Assisting in rapid clot formation in patients using blood thinners.

Areas of Use:

  • In all kinds of GNH (Close Quarter Battle) operations conducted in urban and rural areas,
  • In all types of armed deep operations carried out by Special Forces units (especially due to ease of use and lack of pain during application, which is important for operational secrecy),
  • In combat, mine and explosive ordnance disposal teams in conflict areas,
  • For explosive ordnance disposal teams assigned to firing ranges,
  • In border outposts where emergency response capabilities are limited, in remote J. outposts, and in independently operating units,
  • At all checkpoints,
  • In the first aid kits of all vehicles on duty,
  • In medical units,
  • In personnel of the Kıt’a unit responsible for providing initial aid,
  • In infirmaries on sea voyages,
  • In patrol and control vehicles of all types,
  • For personnel performing technical duties on all types of aircraft,
  • In search and rescue operations,
  • In all search and rescue teams.
  • In natural disaster relief missions,
  • In intelligence teams.

Level to be used:

  • Single Private; can be carried in War Packs, pockets, backpacks. (Can be added to Single Private equipment.)
  • As many packs per Manga/Time/Item –
  • In healthcare units, especially in First Aid Units and emergency services,
  • No additional measures or special storage are required for packages.
  • No special or additional training is required for use. (It is a product that can be used by any personnel without the need for medical knowledge.)
  • The product can be used in all types of weather/atmospheric conditions, including moist and wet environments.
  • It should have a minimum shelf life of 3 years and should be storable in specified quantities as a Combat Load, with its original packaging.
  • It should not be affected by harsh storage conditions and should be storable in hot, cold, and humid environments.
  • Packages should have readable labels for night vision equipment.
  • Packages should not tear with shock, cutting tools, or blunt impacts.

Characteristics of the Hemostatic Plug:

  • Should not produce heat
  • Should provide definite results in patients using blood thinners
  • Should provide results in hypothermic patients
  • Should not have placement issues
  • Should rapidly clot in arterial and venous main vessels (arterial/venous) and should not allow re-bleeding
  • Should not cause pain during use
  • Should not create additional irritation or damage to the wound site
  • Should not require additional measures during use
  • Should be easy to clean after use on the trauma site
  • Should have packaging that is easy to open
  • Should be easily applicable by one person to others and themselves
  • Should be easily cleanable from wounds
  • Should have no side effects, be biocompatible, and not cause allergic reactions
  • Should create an antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antifungal environment in the trauma area to minimize infection


A significant number of casualties on the battlefield occur before medical intervention. First Aid in case of injuries is firstly the responsibility of the Soldier himself, and then the duty and humanitarian responsibility of the Tk./Bl. K., that is to say, the duty and humanitarian responsibility of the people in the battle/conflict field itself. In the group of casualties in combat, there may be internal bleeding (chest, abdominal cavity) or in the extremities (suitable for the use of haemostats and/or tourniquets). Theoretically, extremities can be controlled by compression, but the reality is somewhat different. When trauma occurs in an artery/vein, the bleeding is so rapid and intense that the casualty often dies before help can arrive due to the trauma death cycle of hypovolemia, hypothermia and metabolic acidosis.

For this reason, in the current asymmetric combat conditions, the scientific conclusion reached with the use of haemostatic plugs and their use, which is an indispensable element of the modern first aid warfare kit, is: ‘Stopping bleeding in small and medium-sized arteries and veins in injury areas where tourniquet use is not possible, especially in the groin, back, hip and armpit areas, and reducing bleeding in large-sized (groin) arteries and veins22 provides life-saving. The inclusion of new biotechnology products such as haemostatic plugs in the war bag will bring material and moral success to our country in the current environment. Due to the fact that all casualties are caused by haemorrhage, indispensable materials in the War Packs:

  1. Haemostatic Plug – THE FASTEST STOPPER
  2. Modern combat tourniquet that can be applied with one hand in 10 seconds, for example: NSN 6515015217976
  3. For example, 200% elastic emergency trauma bandage for head, limb, abdomen, chest and back injuries with special compress pads for explosive and ballistic entry/exit, made of medical cotton: NATO Stock number 651031162452
  4. For open chest trauma, for example, an adhesive-strap film: NSN 6510015490939
  5. Vacuumed gauze swabs
  6. Trauma intervention reference scheme,
  7. Aluminium splints (finger and limb) for example: NSN 6515014941951 and 6515015215730
  8. Self-adhesive bandage, safety pin, 1 metre thin thread
  9. Apparatus for opening the airway, IV sets and resuscitation fluids and medicines (for advanced cases)